The iPad: A Retail Revolution?

There I was standing in line at the Apple store at 8:30 on the morning on April 3, waiting to pick up a brand new iPad. My mission? Check out this new device to see how retailers might use it to get ahead. Yeah, OK, and I really wanted one for myself, too. But I was legitimately interested in playing with it to determine good retail uses. And I definitely think there are some potentially revolutionary ways retailers can take advantage of the iPad.

Yes, it’s really something profoundly different

Understanding the value of the iPad starts with understanding why it is truly different than anything we’ve seen previously. Many of the attributes you might use to describe it have existed previously, but it’s the combination of those attributes that truly represents the revolution. The fact that it’s self-contained, light weight, and unburdened by a keyboard and a mouse means that it’s easy to hold and carry around. And it’s easy to share with others. It turns on instantly, and the battery lasts for a long time. The touch screen interface feels natural and intuitive. The apps it can run are powerful and capable of more functionality than most web pages. The combination of these attributes provides a powerful platform for retailers to leverage.

Here are just three ways retailers can leverage the power of the iPad:

Take catalogs to the promised land
For years, we’ve had visions of using technology to take catalogs to a new level. But online versions of our print catalogs just haven’t really taken off. Sure, we’ve added hyperlinks to make them interactive, and some have even incorporated multimedia elements, but the online versions really haven’t bested the old fashion print version. I believe a main contributor to the lack of the online catalog’s success is the fact that it’s just not comfortable and cozy to flip though an online catalog. Viewing on a computer screen using a keyboard and a mouse is not comfortable and convenient. The extra benefits of the interactive nature lose out to the lack of comfort in browsing.

But the iPad brings the comfort. It’s easy to sit on the couch and flip through pages with your fingers. It feels pretty natural. It doesn’t get hot, and it’s easy to just turn it off when little Suzy needs help with her homework and instantly turn it back on later with a single press of a button. Interactivity and personalization are possible with an internet connected device, of course, so catalogs created for the iPad can be extremely relevant, fun and informative. And they provide a direct connection to purchase capabilities. It’s really a beautiful thing. I believe catalogs that take advantage of these capabilities will be a huge hit with consumers.

Sales floor assistant
Part of the dream of true cross channel integration is the ability to bring the advantages of technology into the physical store in a way that can improve the shopping experience for our customers. Initially, some retailers used kiosks or POS-to-web integrations to provide these experiences. Lately, we’ve had lots of discussions about providing these capabilities to the mobile phones our customers carry with them into the store.

With the iPad, a sales associate can carry with her all the product data, the customer data, and the recommendations available online. Because the device is so easily shareable, she can easily pull up recommendations and hand them to the customer. She can show the customer how the brown lounge chair he’s viewing in the store would look in the red color that’s available via special order and place that special order on the spot. Or she can play a demonstration video of the food processor that struck the customer’s interest and easily show customer reviews. The possibilities are endless.

Virtual planogram and visual merchandising guide
Many retailers are still creating giant visual merchandising and planogram books, printing and binding them, and snail mailing them out to each store. It’s a costly process and not very flexible or efficient. Last minute changes mean reprints or sloppy additions to the original book.

With iPads at each store, we can send full color, highly customizable guides that are custom made for each store, if desired. They will be easy to carry to the racks, and they can even have built in check boxes to help track when the work is done. Efficiencies abound.

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Of course, there could be s significant capital investment to stock each store with set of iPads, and some of the consumer catalog capabilities I mentioned will not bear much fruit until the iPad is more common — or until the inevitable stream of competitive products hits the market and reduces costs. But there’s little doubt these types of devices will become fairly ubiquitous. And when they do, the retailers who are ready take advantage of the capabilities will be the retailers who come out ahead.

What do you think? Do these ideas seem nutty? What ideas do you have?


2 important concepts for better usability

As I mentioned in my last post, I believe (and data I’ve seen at ForeSee Results supports this belief) poor usability is the #1 obstacle to better conversions on our sites.  Getting usability right is hard — very hard. It requires a mindset that is very difficult for most of us to develop naturally. In fact, I’d argue that our natural development tends to pull us further and further away from the mindset we need to design highly usable websites.

Two concepts we need to carefully consider — and strike the right balance between — are “knowledge in the head” and “knowledge in the world.”

Knowledge in the head and knowledge in the world are concepts introduced by noted psychologist, cognitive scientist and author Don Norman is his classic book, The Design of Everyday Things, which I just finished reading. The book was originally written in 1988, well before the web as we know it existed. But the principles he discusses about the design of doors, faucets, phones and other everyday things are extremely relevant to web design. To me, chief among those principles are the concepts of “knowledge in the head” and “knowledge in the world.”

Here’s how Norman explains the two concepts:

Human memory is essentially knowledge in the head, or internal knowledge. If we examine how people use their memories and how they retrieve information, we discover a number of categories. Three are important for us now: 1. Memory for arbitrary things. The items to be retained seem arbitrary, with no meaning and no particular relationship to one other or to things already known 2. Memory for meaningful relationships. The items to be retained form meaningful relationships with themselves or with other things already known. 3. Memory through explanation. The material does not have to be remembered, but rather can be derived from some explanatory mechanism.

Knowledge in the world acts as its own reminder. It can help us recover structures that we otherwise would forget. Knowledge in the head is efficient: no search and interpretation of the environment is required. In order to use knowledge in the head we have to get it there, which might require considerable amounts of learning. Knowledge in the world is easier to learn, but often more difficult to use. And it relies heavily upon the continued physical presence of the information; change the environment and the information is changed. Performance relies upon the physical presence of the task environment.

He goes on to note that “whenever information needed to do a task is readily available in the world, the need for us to learn it diminishes.”

It’s very interesting to look at our sites in the context of these concepts. Imagine a typical customer. What knowledge about how to use the site would she have in her head? How does that compare to the knowledge in our heads about how to use our sites? What’s her educational background, familiarity with web technology and familiarity with our sites versus our educational background, familiarity with web technology and, most of all, familiarity with our own sites?

The reality is, we are not like our customers.

It’s very difficult for those of us who work on sites day in and day out to see our customers’ perspectives. Elitism is the source of poor usability. We all too often consider ourselves to be proxies for our customers. It’s easy to do, and I’ve certainly been guilty of it myself. After all, we are customers of our own businesses, and we see things that work and don’t work for us as customers. We have to remember that we have a lot more knowledge in the head, particularly about our own businesses, than our customers do. And that knowledge in our heads prevents us from seeing our customers’ perspectives. We also easily miss lots of “tree stumps” on our sites that regularly get in our customers’ way.

So, should we just include step-by-step instructions for everything on our sites?

No, I don’t think that’s necessary or even prudent for everything. Norman explains lots of design principles that, if applied, should make many elements of our sites highly intuitive without instructions. But we probably should include a lot more help than we do. We really need to listen to what our customers are telling us and watch them use our sites. It’s the only way to get a better sense of the knowledge in their heads so we can know where we need to include some knowledge in the world.

For example, all too often username or password requirements are not mentioned at the point of entry and customers only find out about them when an error message occurs. Let’s be clear about those requirements upfront.

What type of terminology is being used in navigation? Are customers likely to equate “jackets” with “outerwear” or “stoves” with “cooktops?” One quick way to get a sense of terminology customers use is a review of search terms customers use.

Conventions can be our friends

There are certain conventions that are established enough to effectively be knowledge in the head for most of our customers. For example, navigation on the top of the page and on the left are common enough that we can reasonably expect the majority of our customers to find navigation in those places.If we veer from those types of conventions, though, we have to remember that we’re messing with that knowledge in the head.

But we have to be careful with conventions as there are many site practices that might be second nature to us and not to our customers. I once watched a usability session where on-screen instructions directed the customer (a 40ish or so middle class man) to select “the drop-down box.” He searched around the page looking for a box labeled “drop-down” and didn’t find one. That terminology wasn’t familiar to him. Some of our everyday language isn’t as common as we might assume.

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While many of the concepts from Don Norman’s book have already seriously changed the way I look at the world (I think my wife may be getting annoyed at my now constant commentary on the design of every door we see), I most appreciate the relatively simple concepts of “knowledge in the head” and “knowledge in the world.” Forcing ourselves to identify what elements of our sites’ designs require which of those concepts will lead us to create significantly more usable sites for our customers. And more usable sites will absolutely lead to more sales. Woo hoo! Bonuses for all!

What do you think? Do you see your site differently in the context of these concepts? Do you have other concepts you like to use?


Retail: Shaken Not Stirred by Kevin Ertell


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